1. ytellioglu:

    Qubbat-ul-Islam Mosque in Damascus, Syria in the UNESCO World Heritage Site


  2. ytellioglu:

    "Bilge Tonyukuk ben özüm tabgaç iliñge kılındım. Türk budun tabgaçka körür erti." (Bilge Tonyukuk ben kendim, Tabgaç ilinde doğdum. Türk budunu Tabgaç’e bağlı idi.)
    Tonyukuk (Old Turkic: Bilge Tuňuquq, born c. 646, died c. 726?) was the baga-tarkhan of four Göktürk khagans, the best known of whom is Bilge Khan.

    The name is spelled as t-o-ň-uq-uq (𐱃𐰆𐰪𐰸𐰸) in the Old Turkic script, variously interpreted as Tunuquq, Tonuquq, Tuj-uquq, Tony Yuguq, Tujun-oq, Tojuquq, with a number of suggestions for its etymology.

    He played a major role in politics of the Turkic tribes and establishment and assertion of the Göktürk state against the Chinese Tang Dynasty. Tonyukuk first served the Tang Empire, then joined the Gokturk rebell against the empire. Tonyukuk was a “guardian of Türk values” and rejected Taoism and Buddhism as unsuitable to a people of warriors, advising the Turks to “follow the water and the grass” (i.e. to adhere to their nomadic lifestyle) to avoid annexation by the Chinese Empire, as they numbered “less than a hundredth part of the Chinese”.He was one of the Turkic commanders during the battle on Tola river against uygurs, the leader of the Gokturk campaigns against Kirgiz khanate in 708-709 and against Turgesh khanate and Arab Halifate in 711-712. He didn’t support Kultegin and Bilge in their struggle against the power of Kapagan’s sons so he was discharged from ruling the khanate, but then Bilge decided to return and rehabilitate him.


  3. alapiseira:

    The Bosnian pyramid, Visocica Hill, is the first European pyramid to be discovered and is located in the heart of Bosnia, in the town of Visoko. The pyramid has all the elements: four perfectly shaped slopes pointing toward the cardinal points, a flat top and an entrance complex. On top of the pyramid are also the ruins of a Medieval walled town, once the base of a Bosnian king Tvrtko of Kotromanic (1338-1391). Because of its similarities to the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan, Mexico, it has been named the “Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun” (‘Bosanska Piramida Sunca’). There are also a four more ancient structures on the site, the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon (‘Bosanska Piramida Mjeseca’), Bosnian Pyramid of the Dragon ( ‘Bosanska Piramida Zmaja’), Bosnian Pyramid of the Love (‘Bosanska Piramida Ljubavi’) and Temple of the Earth, (‘Hram Zemlje’).’We have already dug out stone blocks which I believe are covering the pyramid’, said Semir Osmanagic, a Bosnian American archaeologist who has spent the last 15 years studying the pyramids of Latin America. ‘We found a paved entrance plateau and discovered underground tunnels’…..



  4. rhamphotheca:

    The Western Interior Seaway, approx. 75 million years ago

    Image from:  Sampson SD, Loewen MA, Farke AA, Roberts EM, Forster CA, et al. (2010) New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism. PLoS ONE 5(9): e12292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292.

    (via: Laelaps - National Geo)


  5. 76945-costume-research-and-more:

    17th century Janssares high cap at Kismeta.com

    17th century Janissaries cap Ornament at  Ceremonial/Ritual Dress, Silver, gilt, decorated with flattened wire and granulation, 10 1/16 x 3 3/4 in. (25.55 x 9.52 cm)

    Last photo is a detailed diagram of the Janissary´s hat metal ornament from kismta.com

          LAMCA Museum

    (via ytellioglu)




  8. ytellioglu:

    Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) Iznik Turkey


  9. ytellioglu:

    "In ancient times the year was composed of eighteen months, and thus it was observed by the native people. Since their months were made of no more than twenty days, these were all the days contained in a month, because they were not guided by the moon but by the days; therefore, the year had eighteen months. The days of the year were counted twenty by twenty."

    ~Diego Durán

    Xiuhpohualli is the Aztec year (xihuitl) count (pohualli). One solar year consists of 360 named days and 5 nameless (nemontemi). These ‘extra’ days are thought to be unlucky. The year was broken into 18 periods of twenty days each, sometimes compared to the Julian month. The Aztec word for moon is metzli but whatever name that was used for these periods is unknown. The Mayan calendar has a similar configuration and the same 20-day period which they called uinal. Through Spanish usage, the 20 day period of the Aztec calendar has become commonly known as a veintena.

    Each 20-day period started on Cipactli (Crocodile) for which a festival was held. The dates are from early eye-witnesses. Each wrote what they saw. Bernardino de Sahagún’s date precedes the observations of Diego Durán by several decades and is believed to be more recent to the surrender. 


  10. ytellioglu:

    The Piri Reis Map of 1513 

    In 1929 there was an amazing map discovered in the Imperial Archives at Constantinople that had been sitting, virtually unexamined, for years. The map (Fig.1), which had been drawn in 1513 by a Turkish Admiral named Piri Reis, showed North America, South America, Greenland and Antarctica. However what is so perplexing about this map is that Antarctica had not been discovered in 1513. Antarctica was not located until 1820 and America had only been discovered in 1492, a mere 21 years prior to the maps creation and yet it is mapped quite accurately. Remarkably, the map also depicts several land masses bearing their correct longitudes even though longitude itself was not discovered until the late 1700’s either. Reis had been a famous Turkish Admiral of the 16th Century. He had a passion for maps, He loved cartography and was a highly experienced and respected mariner. In his day, he was considered to be an expert on all Mediterranean Lands and Coastlines and also held high in the favors of the Turkish court. Such a noble status enabled him to enjoy privileged access to the Imperial Library at Constantinople and he spent much of his spare time there. In his notes Reis said that he had based his map on several much older maps he had seen at the library, including Fig.1 one that Columbus is reported to have viewed prior to his voyage to the Americas. The map in question was said to have been captured from the Spaniards in a naval engagement and later given to the admiral by a Spanish prisoner who had apparently sailed on three of Columbus’s New World voyages! Many scholars have indeed suspected that Columbus was in possession of a map and already knew of the existence of America before embarking on his famous ‘voyage of discovery’. Reis also wrote a well known Turkish book on sailing called ‘Kitababi Bahriye’ in which he gives detailed and accurate descriptions of the coastlines, harbors, bays, currents, shallows and straits of the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. He was beheaded by the Turkish Court in 1554 or 1555 for reasons now unknown. In case you can’t see it, That’s the top piece of Africa on the top right of the map and the tip of south America reaching out to it from the left side of the map, running up through the gulf of Mexico and up to Nth. America. The tip of Antarctica can be seen sticking up on the bottom right. Another interesting point to this map is the strange layout of the South American continent which looks sort of stretched out of shape. However, viewing the sphere of earth from space accurately produces this type of view.